The Gary Null Show – 07.28.20

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Consuming alliums like onions and garlic found to lower colorectal cancer risk by 79 percent

China Medical University, July 24, 2020

In a recent study published in the Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, Chinese researchers found that eating high amounts of allium vegetables corresponded to a 79 percent reduction in colorectal cancer risk.

According to senior author Zhi Li from The First Hospital of China Medical University, their findings highlight a trend: The greater the amount of alliums consumed, the better the protection against colorectal cancer.

Higher allium consumption linked to a reduced risk of colorectal cancer

For their research, the team compared the food intake of 833 colorectal cancer patients to that of 833 healthy participants (controls) who matched them in terms of age, sex and area of residence. The researchers used food frequency questionnaires to collect the participants’ dietary information.

The researchers found that those who consumed high amounts of allium vegetables had a 79 percent reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Li said that their findings shed light on the role of lifestyle intervention in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

However, Mary Flynn, an associate professor of medicine at Brown University in Rhode Island, noted that although these findings are interesting, it bears stressing that the colorectal cancer patients had a greater family history of the disease than the controls.

The colorectal cancer patients also smoked more and reported consuming less fruits, more alcohol and almost double the amount of red meat than the controls. Together, Flynn says that these factors may have influenced the significant reductions in colorectal cancer risk observed.

On the other hand, the link between allium consumption and lower colon cancer risk remained even after these differences were factored into the analysis, suggesting that allium vegetables like onions, garlic, leeks and shallots do have strong cancer-fighting potential.

The study is one of many that report the anti-cancer benefits of allium vegetables, which are attributed to their sulfur-containing active components. (Related: Researchers explore the anti-cancer potential of a local onion from Iran.)

Garlic, onion and other alliums: promising candidates for holistic cancer treatment

Alliums like onions and garlic are among the most studied cancer-fighting foods, besides cruciferous vegetables, because of their abundance of phenolic compounds.

In a recent article published in the journal Cancer Prevention Research, a team of scientists from the U.S. highlighted the ability of allium vegetables to prevent different types of cancer.

In particular, multiple mechanistic studies agree that the sulfur-containing compounds in alliums are responsible for their anti-carcinogenic properties. Some of these compounds include allicin, alliin and ajoene.

Alliums also contain other potent plant compounds that contribute to their cancer-fighting potential. These compounds include flavonoids, oligosaccharides, arginine and selenium.

According to several epidemiological studies, increased intake of these allium components is linked to a decreased risk of certain cancers, such as stomach, colon, esophageal and prostate cancer.

In another recent article published in the journal Food Research International, researchers from the University of Guelph in Canada found a local variety of red onions to be the most effective at killing both colon and breast cancer cells.

The team attributed the cancer-fighting potential of Ontario-grown red onions to their high quercetin and anthocyanin content. Both flavonoids have been studied in the past as chemopreventive agents in several cancer models.

Taken together, these studies offer ample proof that allium vegetables are excellent natural medicines for various types of cancer.

Link confirmed between a healthy diet and prostate cancer prevention

An INRS team shows an association between eating habits and prostate cancer

National Institute for Scientific Research (Montreal), July 28, 2020

The Canadian Cancer Society estimates that more than 23,000 Canadians will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2020. Among other risk factors, more and more studies point to diet as a major factor in the development of prostate cancer, as it is for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Using data from a study conducted in Montreal between 2005 and 2012, a research team led by Professor Marie-Élise Parent of Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) has shown a link between diet and prostate cancer in the article “Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Population-Based Case-Control Study in Montreal, Canada”, published in Nutrients in June.

Three main dietary profiles analyzed

INRS PhD student Karine Trudeau, the lead author of the study, based her analysis on three main dietary profiles: healthy diet, salty Western diet including alcohol, and sugar-rich Western diet with beverages. The first profile leans heavily towards fruits, vegetables, and plant proteins like tofu and nuts. The salty Western diet with alcohol includes more meat and beverages such as beer and wine. The third profile is rich in pasta, pizza, desserts, and sugary carbonated drinks. The study took age, ethnicity, education, family history, and date of last prostate cancer screening into account.

Marie-Élise Parent and Karine Trudeau found a link between a healthy diet and a lower risk of prostate cancer. Conversely, a Western diet with sweets and beverages was associated with a higher risk and seemed to be a factor in more aggressive forms of cancer. The study did not show any clear link between a Western diet with salt and alcohol and the risk of developing the disease.

Moving away from the typical approach used in epidemiological studies, which involves looking at one nutrient or food group at a time, the researchers collected data from a broader dietary profile. “It’s not easy to isolate the effect of a single nutrient,” explained Ms. Trudeau. “For example, foods rich in vitamin C, such as citrus fruits, promote iron absorption. Calcium is often found in dairy products, which also contain vitamin D. Our more targeted approach takes this synergy into account to produce more meaningful results that public health authorities can use to formulate recommendations. Rather than counting on one miracle food, people should look at their overall diet.”

“For a long time we’ve suspected that diet might play a role in the development of prostate cancer, but it was very hard to pinpoint the specific factors at play,” said Professor Parent. “This study is significant because it looks at dietary habits as a whole. We’ve uncovered evidence that, we hope, can be used to develop prevention strategies for prostate cancer, the most common cancer among men in Canada and many other countries.”

In addition to INRS faculty and students Marie-Élise Parent, Karine Trudeau, Christine Barul, and Marie-Claude Rousseau, Ilona Csizmadi (Cumming School of Medicine) participated in the research. The study was funded by the Canadian Cancer Society (CCS), the Cancer Research Society (CRS), Fonds de la recherche du Québec–Santé (FRQS), and Ministère de l’Économie et de l’Innovation (MEI).


Study reveals humans are impatient, even down to seconds

Ohio University, July 28, 2020

An Ohio University study seeking to understand the psychological mechanisms of waiting for a larger reward in contrast to instant gratification with a smaller reward was recently published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, a flagship journal of the American Psychological Association.

The research team discussed in their paper how their findings show that people are impatient not only when thinking about whether to wait or not for a larger reward in the abstract, but they are even more impatient when they actually must wait to receive a larger reward. In the study, the amounts and delays were small (in cents and seconds), but even in the small-scale participants demonstrated myopic behavior, as in preferring the smaller payoff sooner.

“In this particular paper, we’re interested in how people make decisions that entail comparing the time that it takes to get something versus how much one will get,” said Dr. Claudia González Vallejo, a professor in the College of Arts and Sciences Department of Psychology and second author of the paper. “Those types of experiments are under an umbrella of what is called intertemporal choice, which refers to studying how people make tradeoffs between amounts, either to gain or to lose, relative to the timing of those.”

The paper’s lead author is Dr. Ping Xu, currently of Shenzhen University’s School of Psychology, and the third author is Dr. Benjamin Vincent of University of Dundee’s School of Social Sciences. 

The paper is based on Xu’s dissertation from 2019 as she graduated from OHIO under Dr. González Vallejo’s mentoring. “I feel lucky, honored and touched. I am proud of my team,” Xu said of having the paper finally published. 

In the study, the researchers made a realistic situation in which participants could actually experience the time of waiting to receive something, with payoffs and units of time adjusted to be smaller altogether, while at a computer. 

This worked by having a participant make decisions between coins that were small and could be received immediately, or larger ones that required a waiting period in seconds before they could be picked up. For each choice, the participant could thus wait and get something larger, or take the smaller reward. Two groups received identical choice options but differed on whether they had to wait to receive the larger payoff after each choice was made or not. In other words, one group experienced the delay after each selection, whereas the other group did not and expected waiting at the end of the experiment instead.

Before the results, González Vallejo thought that the time to wait was so small that it wouldn’t matter to participants. If it was only a few seconds, surely they would take the larger reward every time, she thought. However, that was not the result.

“We found that in both situations, people did make the tradeoff between time and money. It wasn’t that they would just go for few more cents every time because the amounts of time were too small to even think about them. So, delays matter—even seconds to people matter,” González Vallejo said. “In general, people are just very impatient.” 

Xu said, “[The results] overturned our initial plans and predictions, and led us towards something surprising, or to a direction we had never thought of.”

Using mathematical modeling, two reasons for the findings include that time feels longer when experiencing it and the amount of the reward is devalued when it is delayed, with the study finding support for both reasonings. Future empirical tests are needed to test these ideas further. 

Although the research project was started a couple years ago, González Vallejo noted that the findings can be applicable to the current pandemic. 

For example, while some countries implemented earlier and longer lockdowns and mask mandates, others showed hesitation to implement such policies or did not wait through the mandates long enough for cases to decrease substantially, with cases continuing to grow. 

“I think a lot of experts right now come together and agree on some studies that have shown that if [the United States] had remained in lockdown, or if lockdowns were done earlier and longer, perhaps things would have unfolded differently,” González Vallejo said. “Waiting is not easy, as our study showed, and I think future research in terms of analyzing different countries’ policies with that in mind will show how some policies requiring patience ended up giving different outcomes for this pandemic.” 

Publishing in a flagship APA journal is extremely competitive and difficult, thus relief exists among the team for the accomplishment to have the work finally published in Journal of Experimental Psychology: General after several months.

“When I saw the final publication, I felt that I have graduated for the second ,” Xu said. “I am lucky having [that] kind of experience.”

Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection

Bar Ilan University (Israel), July 28, 2020

Vitamin D is recognized as an important co-factor in several physiological processes linked with bone and calcium metabolism, and also in diverse non-skeletal outcomes, including autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity and cognitive decline, and infections. In particular, the pronounced impact of vitamin D metabolites on the immune system response, and on the development of COVID-19 infection by the novel SARS CoV-2 virus, has been previously described in a few studies worldwide.

The collaborative group of scientists from the Leumit Health Services (LHS) and the Azrieli Faculty of Medicine of Bar-Ilan University aimed to determine associations of low plasma 25(OH)D with the risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization. Using the real-world data and Israeli cohort of 782 COVID-19 positive patients and 7,807 COVID-19 negative patients, the groups identified that low plasma vitamin D level appears to be an independent risk factor for COVID-19 infection and hospitalization. The research was just published in The FEBS Journal.

“The main finding of our study was the significant association of low plasma vitamin D level with the likelihood of COVID-19 infection among patients who were tested for COVID-19, even after adjustment for age, gender, socio-economic status and chronic, mental and physical disorders,” said Dr. Eugene Merzon, Head of the Department of Managed Care and leading researcher of the LHS group. “Furthermore, low vitamin D level was associated with the risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19 infection, although this association wasn’t significant after adjustment for other confounders,” he added. “Our finding is in agreement with the results of previous studies in the field. Reduced risk of acute respiratory tract infection following vitamin D supplementation has been reported,” said Dr. Ilan Green, Head of the LHS Research Institute.

“According to our analysis, persons that were COVID-19 positive were older than non-infected persons. Interestingly, the two-peak distributions for age groups were demonstrated to confer increased risk for COVID-19: around ages 25 and 50 years old,” said Dr. Milana Frenkel-Morgenstern, the leader of the Azrieli Faculty of Medicine research group. “The first peak may be explained by high social gathering habits at the young age. The peak at age 50 years may be explained by continued social habits, in conjunction with various chronic diseases,” Dr. Frenkel-Morgenstern continued.

“Surprisingly, chronic medical conditions, like dementia, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung disease that were considered to be very risky in previous studies, were not found as increasing the rate of infection in our study,” noted Prof. Shlomo Vinker, LHS Chief Medical Officer. “However, this finding is highly biased by the severe social contacts restrictions that were imposed on all the population during the COVID-19 outbreak. Therefore, we assume that following the Israeli Ministry of Health instructions, patients with chronic medical conditions significantly reduced their social contacts. This might indeed minimize the risk of COVID-19 infection in that group of patients,” explained Prof. Vinker.

Dr. Dmitry Tworowski and Dr. Alessandro Gorohovski. from the Frenkel-Morgenstern laboratory at Bar-Ilan University’s Azrieli Faculty of Medicine, suggest that the study will have a very significant impact. “The main strength of our study is its being large, real-world, and population-based,” they explained. Now researchers are planning to evaluate factors associated with mortality due to COVID-19 in Israel. “We are willing to find associations to the COVID-19 clinical outcomes (for example, pre-infection glycemic control of COVID-19 patients) to make the assessment of mortality risk due to COVID-19 infection in Israel,” said Dr. Eugene Merzon.

Oral N-acetylcysteine improved cone function in retinitis pigmentosa patients 

Johns Hopkins University, July 23, 2020

According to news reporting out of Baltimore, Maryland, by NewsRx editors, research stated, “In retinitis pigmentosa (RP), rod photoreceptors degenerate from 1 of many mutations, after which cones are compromised by oxidative stress. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduces oxidative damage and increases cone function/survival in RP models.”

Our news journalists obtained a quote from the research from Johns Hopkins University, “We tested the safety, tolerability, and visual function effects of oral NAC in RP patients. Subjects (n = 10 per cohort) received 600 mg (cohort 1), 1200 mg (cohort 2), or 1800 mg (cohort 3) NAC bid for 12 weeks and then tid for 12 weeks. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), macular sensitivity, ellipsoid zone (EZ) width, and aqueous NAC were measured. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the rates of changes during the treatment period. There were 9 drug related gastrointestinal adverse events that resolved spontaneously or with dose reduction (maximum tolerated dose 1800 mg bid). During the 24-week treatment period, mean BCVA significantly improved at 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.6, P< 0.001), 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-0.7, P< 0.001), and 0.2 (95% CI: 0.02-0.4, P = 0.03) letters/month in cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no significant improvement in mean sensitivity over time in cohorts land 2, but there was in cohort 3 (0.15 dB/month, 95% CI: 0.04-0.26). There was no significant change in mean EZ width in any cohort. Oral NAC is safe and well tolerated in patients with moderately advanced RP and may improve suboptimally functioning macular cones.”

According to the news editors, the research concluded: “A randomized, placebo-controlled trial is needed to determine if oral NAC can provide long-term stabilization and/or improvement in visual function in patients with RP.”

Excessive screen time for toddlers linked to less physical activity, stunted development

National University of Singapore, July 21, 2020

As the world continues to advance, technology is becoming a bigger part of every child’s development. Playing on various digital devices for too long, however, can be just as bad for kids as it is for adults. A recent study says excessive screen time may stunt a child’s growth, especially if they start using devices around age two or three.

Researchers in Singapore examined over 500 children. Their findings lead them to recommend parents follow World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, which advise limiting a child’s screen time to one hour per day. This amount should be even less for children younger than five.

Tracking the many forms of screen time

Study authors say screen time tends to replace time children usually spend sleeping or engaging in physical activity. This can lead to a variety of health problems, including high risk of obesity and lower mental development.

Until this report, researchers say most studies focus on school-aged children and adolescents, producing mixed results.

“We sought to determine whether screen viewing habits at age two to three affected how children spent their time at age five. In particular we were interested in whether screen viewing affected sleep patterns and activity levels later in childhood,” researcher Falk Müller-Riemenschneider explains in a media release.

Parents were asked to report on their children’s screen time at age two and again one year later. Activities like playing video games, watching TV, and using a tablet or phone were all included in the results.

When the children turned five, they continuously wore an activity tracker for seven days. That tracker monitors sleep, time spent sitting, and how much light-to-strenuous physical activity the youngsters get.

How do youngsters spend their time?

On average, the average child watches 2.5 hours of television. TV is the most used device. Children spending at least three hours a day in front of a screen are also spending an average of 40 more minutes sitting down compared to more active five year-olds.

The results also reveal children at age five are also less active if they’ve been using devices too much early on. Those youths are getting about 30 minutes less light activity each day and 10 minutes less vigorous exercise as well.

“Our findings support public health efforts to reduce screen viewing time in young children,” Bozhi Chen from the National University of Singapore says.

Sleep habits do not seem to be heavily affected by too much screen usage.

Room for improvement

Researchers note the results also need to take into account biases by the parents. They believe some adults may leave out information on their child’s diet, sleep patterns, and environmental factors such as childcare.

Dr. Dorothea Dumuid of the University of South Australia, who is not a part of the study, argues the findings aren’t enough to definitively link screen time with reduced physical activity.

“In this rapidly evolving digital age, children’s screen use is a key concern for parents and medical bodies. Guidelines to limit screen time have been released by many governments and WHO, however, screens offer digital and social connectedness and educational opportunities,” she says. “Future research is needed to assess the influence of media content, to determine optimum durations of screen time.”

Chen and the team from the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health say more studies are necessary to determine the long-term health effects of the growing digital influence on kids.


Research shows Mexican walnut can protect the kidneys from ischemic injury

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León School of Medicine (Mexico), July 24, 2020

Some species from the genus Juglans – the largest and most widely distributed of the eight genera in the walnut family – have diverse biological activities, such as anti-hypertensive, antioxidant, lipolytic (fat-metabolizing), anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipidemic and anti-proliferative properties. Studies suggest that these activities may be useful in the treatment of a wide variety of ailments, ranging from minor complaints like diarrhea and stomach pain to more serious conditions like arthritis, diabetes and cancer.

Juglans mollis, commonly known as Mexican walnut, is traditionally used to make medicine in northeastern Mexico. Parts of this medium-sized tree are said to be effective against microbial infections and ulcers. Although reports about its biological properties vary, the bark extract of the Mexican walnut tree has consistently been found to have antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anti-mycobacterial activities.

In a recent study, Mexican researchers evaluated the biological activity of Mexican walnut bark extract. Specifically, they investigated whether it can protect against damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Also known as reoxygenation injury, I/R damage occurs when blood supply to a section of tissue or an organ returns (reperfusion) after a period of ischemia, or lack of oxygen.

The researchers reported their findings in an article published in the journal BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Mexican walnut bark exhibits kidney-protective activity

Oxidative stress – an imbalance between the production of free radicals and antioxidants – and inflammation are two events involved in I/R injury. But recent studies suggest that Mexican walnut has antioxidant properties that can help reduce the damage caused by I/R.

To determine if it can protect the kidneys from I/R damage, the researchers tested its bark extract on a rat model of I/R injury. They divided 24 rats into four groups, which were designated as the sham group, the I/R group, the extract group and the extract plus I/R group.

The researchers pretreated two groups with the bark extract (300 mg/kg) for seven?days before inducing I/R. This step involved clamping the renal hilums for 45 minutes then reperfusing the kidneys for 15 hours.

The researchers then took blood samples to evaluate the levels of kidney function markers (i.e., alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen and creatinine), oxidative stress markers (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA)) and pro-inflammatory molecules (i.e., interleukin-1B (IL-1B), IL-6 and TNF-a).

The researchers found that the extract plus?I/R group had lower creatinine, ALT, MDA, IL-1B, IL-6 and TNF-levels than the I/R group. On the other hand, the extract plus?I/R group had higher levels of SOD, an antioxidant enzyme, than the sham group. These findings suggest that the Mexican walnut bark extract can not only reduce kidney injury but also improve blood antioxidant levels.

In addition, compared with the sham group, the researchers observed no biochemical or histological damage in the rats treated with the extract. The rats in the extract?plus?I/R group also had less histological damage than the rats in the I/R group. (Related: Black cumin prevents kidney damage.)

Based on these findings, the researchers concluded that the bark of the Mexican walnut tree can protect against I/R-induced kidney damage. This activity may be attributed to the plant’s ability to decrease inflammation and modulate oxidative stress markers (SOD and MDA).


Magnesium-Rich Foods and Why You Need Them

GreenMedInfo, July 23, 2020

You may have a low level of magnesium in your diet that is preventing you from reaping important health benefits

Magnesium (Mg) is considered a healthy mineral essential to your body, but it is estimated that 75% of Americans and people around the world are well below the recommended daily intake of Mg.[i] Luckily, there is an easy fix, since magnesium is bountiful in many foods. 

Bright leafy greens/veggies (magnesium gives them that rich green color) top the magnesium-dense list including spinach, chard, broccoli and kale, followed closely by legumes such as lima beans, black beans, peas and edamame (soybean).[ii] When it comes to snacks, seeds[iii] (pumpkin and flax), nuts[iv] (almonds, cashews, peanut butter) and dark chocolate[v] pack a high magnesium punch.

Healthy omega-3 fats and magnesium are also abundant in salmon, tuna and avocado.[vi] Whole grains such as quinoa, brown rice, oatmeal, buckwheat and even wild rice (technically a grass) are filled with magnesium.[vii] For a list of the top 25 magnesium-rich foods, see Table 1.

Table 1
25 Foods Rich in Magnesium Portions Magnesium (100% Daily Value = 420 mg)
Spinach 1 cup cooked 157 mg (37%)
Chard 1 cup 157 mg (37%)
Seeds (Pumpkin and Squash) 1 ounce 156 mg (37%)
Lima Beans 1 cup cooked 126 mg (30%)
Black Beans 1 cup cooked 120 mg (29%)
Quinoa 1 cup 118 mg (28%)
Tuna 6 oz fillet (high in mercury) 109 mg (26%)
Almonds ¼ cup 105 mg (25%)
Cashews ¼ cup 90 mg (21%)
Brown Rice 1 cup 86 mg (20%)
Buckwheat 1 cup or 1 ounce dry 65 mg (15%)
Dark Chocolate 1 ounce square (70% cocoa) 64 mg (15%)
Oatmeal 1 cup 60 mg (14%)
Avocado medium 58 mg (14%)
Salmon ½ fillet (178 grams) 53 mg (13%)
Wild Rice 1 cup 52 mg (12%)
Edamame (Soybean) ½ cup 50 mg (12%)
Broccoli ½ cup (don’t overcook) 50 mg (12%)
Figs ½ cup 50 mg (12%)
Peas 1 cup cooked 50 mg (12%)
Peanut Butter 2 Tablespoons 49 mg (12%)
Yogurt 1 cup 47 mg (11%)
Flaxseed Oil or Flaxseed 1 Tablespoon or ½ Tablespoon 42 mg (10%)
Banana 1 cup sliced 41 mg (10%)
Kale 1 cup (raw) 37 mg (8%)

Benefits of Eating Magnesium-Rich Foods

Magnesium in your diet helps to prevent diseases and lessen the harshness of some diseases if you get them. Magnesium has neuroprotective, cardio-protective, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity and hypoglycemic properties.

A magnesium deficiency or low level of magnesium in your food creates an out of balance condition in your body linked to many diseases from diabetes, heart disease and metabolic syndrome to depression and neurological disorders.


Magnesium has many protective properties, such as glucose or blood sugar moderating and insulin regulating, lowering risk for Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and improving outcomes for Type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Magnesium intake significantly improved glucose parameters in people with diabetes and also improved insulin-sensitivity parameters in those at high risk of diabetes in a review of 18 randomized clinical trials, including a total of 670 diabetic and 453 at risk for diabetes patients.[viii]

In another meta-analysis of 637,922 individuals, the risk of T2D was reduced by 17% across all the studies; 19% in women and 16% in men when magnesium was increased in their diet.[ix]

A magnesium deficiency is seen as a contributing factor in insulin resistance for T2D patients.[x] In a 2017 study of 71 children with T1D, magnesium supplementation improved glycemic control and lipid profiles while decreasing complications such as hypomagnesaemia (clinical magnesium deficiency).[xi] For the 52,684 without known diabetes, dietary magnesium was found to lower fasting glucose and insulin, two risk factors for diabetes.[xii]

Heart Disease

Because of chronic diseases, medications, decreases in food crop magnesium contents, and higher availability of refined and processed foods, the vast majority of people in modern societies are at risk for magnesium deficiency (often undiagnosed) and magnesium dietary supplementation is an easy and low cost way to lower the risks for a variety of heart diseases.[xiii]

In a meta-analysis of 532,979 participants from 19 studies, the greatest risk reduction for cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurred when magnesium intake increased from 150 to 400 milligrams (mg) per day.[xiv] In a meta-analysis of 48 genetic studies with a total of 60,801 coronary artery disease (CAD) cases and 123,504 non-cases, researchers found that serum magnesium levels are inversely associated with risk of heart disease.[xv]

Magnesium supplementation is also seen as a successful preventative mechanism (by improving lipid profiles, fasting glucose and blood pressure)[xvi] to heart disease complications (a leading cause of death from T2 diabetes).[xvii],[xviii]

Metabolic Syndrome

Generally, the triad of obesity, high blood pressure and impaired glucose tolerance, as in T2D (insulin resistance), is referred to as metabolic syndrome.[xix] In a meta-analysis of six studies, including a total of 24,473 individuals and 6,311 cases of metabolic syndrome, a higher dietary magnesium level lowered the risk of metabolic syndrome by 17%.[xx]

Magnesium supplementation has also been shown to lower blood pressure measures significantly in those with high blood pressure taking anti-hypertensive medication (135 subjects); systolic blood pressure decreased by 18.7 points and diastolic blood pressure dropped by an average of 10.9 points.